News from Cosmology
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The latest news from CosmologySat, 18 Nov 2017 04:51:46 GMT2017-11-18T04:51:46ZSpringer Cosmologyhttp://images.springer.com/cda/content/designimage/cda_displaydesignimage.gif?SGWID=0-0-17-901483-0
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A forgotten model of the universe
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An analysis of Einstein’s 1931 paper featuring a dynamic model of the universe<br /><img align="right" src="https://images.springer.com/cda/content/image/cda_displayimage.jpg?SGWID=0-0-16-2324832-0" /><div>A paper published in <a href="journal:13129">EPJ H</a> provides the first English translation and an analysis of one of Albert Einstein’s little-known papers, <em>“On the cosmological problem of the general theory of relativity.”</em> Published in 1931, it features a forgotten model of the universe, while refuting Einstein’s own earlier static model of 1917. In this paper, Einstein introduces a cosmic model in which the universe undergoes an expansion followed by a contraction. This interpretation contrasts with the monotonically expanding universe of the widely known Einstein-de Sitter model of 1932.<br /><br />The authors, Cormac O’Raifeartaigh and Brendan McCann from the Waterford Institute of Technology, Ireland, provide <a href="http://link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepjh%2Fe2013-40038-x">insights</a> into Einstein’s view of cosmology. At that time, the first pieces of evidence for an expanding universe emerged, among others, stemming from Hubble’s observations of the expanding universe. <br /><br />Einstein was keen to investigate whether a relativistic model could account for the new observations, by removing the so-called cosmological constant introduced in his 1917 cosmological model. Einstein sets the constant to zero. He then arrives at a model of a universe that first expands and then contracts. This model is also characterised by singularity-like behaviour at either end. <br />In this paper, the authors also discuss Einstein’s view of issues such as the curvature of space and the timespan of the expansion, while also uncovering some anomalies in Einstein’s calculations. For example, they highlight a numerical error in the calculation of the present radius and matter density of the universe. They also believe that Einstein’s estimate of the age of the universe is based on a questionable calculation of Friedmann’s analysis of a relativistic universe of spherical curvature and time-varying radius. Finally, they argue that Einstein’s model is not periodic, contrary to what is often claimed.<br /><br /><strong>Reference:</strong><br /><br />C. O’Raifeartaigh and B. McCann (2014), Einstein’s cosmic model of 1931 revisited, <em>European Physical Journal H</em>, DOI 10.1140/epjh/e2013-40038-x<br /><br /><strong>The full-text article is available to journalists on request.</strong></div><br /><h2>Further information:</h2><a href="http://www.epj.org">European Physical Journal</a><br /><br /><h2>Contact:</h2><div>Saskia Rohmer, tel. +49 6221 4878414, saskia.rohmer@springer.com<br /></div><br />New York / HeidelbergTue, 18 Feb 2014 23:00:00 GMThttp://www.springer.com/about+springer/media/springer+select?SGWID=0-11001-6-1455145-02014-02-18T23:00:00ZEinstein’s conversion from a static to an expanding universe
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Albert Einstein accepted the modern cosmological view that the universe is expanding long after his contemporaries<br /><img align="right" src="https://images.springer.com/cda/content/image/cda_displayimage.jpg?SGWID=0-0-16-2324831-0" /><div>Until 1931, physicist Albert Einstein believed that the universe was static. An urban legend attributes this change of perspective to when American astronomer Edwin Hubble showed Einstein his observations of redshift in the light emitted by far away nebulae – today known as galaxies. But the reality is more complex. The change in Einstein’s viewpoint, in fact, resulted from a tortuous thought process. Now, in an <a href="http://link.springer.com/article/10.1140%2Fepjh%2Fe2013-40037-6">article</a> published in <a href="journal:13129">EPJ H</a> Harry Nussbaumer from the Institute of Astronomy at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, explains how Einstein changed his mind following many encounters with some of the most influential astrophysicists of his generation.<br /><br /> In 1917 Einstein applied his theory of general relativity in the universe, and suggested a model of a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. However, this interpretation has one major problem: If gravitation was the only active force, his universe would collapse – an issue Einstein addressed by introducing the cosmological constant. <br /><br />He then fiercely resisted the view that the universe was expanding, despite his contemporaries’ suggestions that this was the case. For example, in 1922, Russian physicist Alexander Friedman showed that Einstein’s equations were viable for dynamical worlds. And, in 1927, Georges Lemaître, a Belgian astrophysicist from the Catholic University of Louvain, concluded that the universe was expanding by combining general relativity with astronomical observations. Yet, Einstein still refused to abandon his static universe. <br /><br />However, in an April 1931 report to the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Einstein finally adopted a model of an expanding universe. In 1932 he teamed up with the Dutch theoretical physicist and astronomer, Willem de Sitter, to propose an eternally expanding universe which became the cosmological model generally accepted until the middle of the 1990s. To Einstein’s relief these two models no longer needed the cosmological constant. <br /><br /><br /><strong>Reference:</strong><br /><br />H. Nussbaumer (2013), Einstein’s conversion from his static to an expanding universe, <em>European Physical Journal H</em>, DOI 10.1140/epjh/e2013-40037-6<br /><br /><strong>The full-text article is available to journalists on request.</strong> </div><br /><h2>Further information:</h2><a href="http://www.epj.org">European Physical Journal</a><br /><br /><h2>Contact: </h2><div>Saskia Rohmer, tel. +49 6221 4878414, saskia.rohmer@springer.com</div><br />New York / HeidelbergSun, 16 Feb 2014 23:00:00 GMThttp://www.springer.com/about+springer/media/springer+select?SGWID=0-11001-6-1454941-02014-02-16T23:00:00ZCosmology at Springer
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<div>On this page you will find an overview of journals, book series, and new titles in Cosmology. We also present some highlights that we don't want you to miss. <br /></div><br />http://www.springer.com/astronomy/cosmology?SGWID=0-141002-6-514409-0